Sebenarnya kata so, too, dan also mempunyai arti yang sama yaitu juga, pula, pun. Tapi dalam penggunaannya terdapat perbedaan, so digunakan sebelum tobe(s) dan auxilliaries(kata bantu).
- My wife will talk to him and so will I
- My wife has talked about it, and so have I
- My wife talked about it, and so did I
- My wife is talking about it, and so am I
Sedangkan too dan also digunakan setelah tobe(s) dan auxilliaries.
- My wife will talk to him and I will too
- My wife has talked about it, and I have too
- My wife talked about it, and I did also
- My wife is talking about it, and I am also
- When indicating that one person or thing does something and then adding that another does the same, use the word “so” or “too”. To avoid needless repetition of words from the affirmative statement, use the conjunction “and”, followed by a simple statement using so or too. The order of this statement will depend on whether so or too is used.
- When a form of the verb be is used in the main clause, the same tense of verb be is used in the simple statement that follows.
Affirmative statement (be) + and + [ S + verb (be) + too]
Example: I am happy and you are too.
Affirmative statement (be) + and + [ so + verb (be) + S
Example: I am happy and so are you.
- When a compound verb (auxiliary +verb), for example, will go, should do, has done, have written, must examine, etc., occurs in the main clause, the auxiliary of the main verb is used in the simple statement, and the subject and verb must agree.
Affirmative statement (compound verb) + and + [ S + auxiliary only + too ]
Example: Edward should do his homework and Bella should too.
Affirmative statement (compound verb) + and + [ so + auxiliary only+S ]
Example: Edward should do his homework and so does Bella.
- When any verb except be appears without any auxiliaries in the main clause, the auxiliary do, does, or did is used in the simple statement. The subject and verb must agree and the tense must be the same.
Affirmative statement (single verb except be) + and + [ S + do, does ,or did + too ]
Example: Jackson plays guitar every day and Jessica does too.
Affirmative statement (single verb except be) + and + [ so + do, does, or did + S ]
- Mark sung “moments” and so did Kevin.
- We want to buy a fountain, and she does too.
- My mother likes traveling, and so do their mother.
- My brother invites him to the party, and my sister does too.
- They wrote a good poem, and so did he.
- Fred cooked fried rice for his breakfast, and Tina did too.
- Rose likes to fly, and her brother does too.
- They will leave at noon, and I will too.
- He has an early appointment, and so do I.
- She has already written her composition, and so have her friends.
- Their plane is arriving at nine o’clock, and so is mine.
- I should go grocery shopping this afternoon, and so should my neighbor.
- We like to swim in the pool, and they do too.
- Our Spanish teacher loves to travel, and so do we.
- He has lived in Mexico for five years, and you have too.
- I must write them a letter, and she must too.
- Hampir sama dengan penjelasan affirmative agreement di atas, neither dan either memiliki arti yang sama yaitu: tidak keduanya, atau kedua-duanya tidak.
Untuk neither digunakan sebelum auxilliary verb, for example:
1. My roommate won’t go, and neither will I
2. My roommate hasn’t gone, and neither have I
3. My roommate doesn’t go, and neither do I
4. My roommate isn’t going, and neither am I
Dan untuk either digunakan setelah auxilliary verb dan kata “not”, for example:
1. My roommate won’t go, and I won’t(will not) either
2. My roommate hasn’t gone, and I haven’t either
3. My roommate doesn’t go, and I don’t either
4. My roommate isn’t going, and I am not either
Hal lain yang harus diperhatikan yaitu untuk pemakaian tobe dan auxilliaries setelah kata “..and..” harus sesuai dengan tobe dan auxilliaries yang digunakan di awal kalimat, seperti :
My wife is talking about it, and so am I
My wife has talked about it, and I have too
My roommate won’t go, and neither will I
My roommate doesn’t go, and I don’t either
Contoh kalimat lainnya:
- The manager isn’t too happy with the project, and neither is his assistant.
- We can’t study in the library, and he can’t either.
- You didn’t pay the taxes, and they didn’t either.
- My brother won’t accept my father’s decision, and my sister won’t either.
- He doesn’t know the answer, and neither does she.
“Either” and “neither” function in simple statements much like “so” and “too” in affirmative sentences. However, either and neither are used to indicate negative agreement. The same rules for auxiliaries, be and do, does, or did apply.
Negative statement + and + [ S + negative auxiliary or be + either]
Negative statement + and + [ neither + positive auxiliary or be + S ]
I didn’t see Bella this morning. Edward didn’t see Bella this morning
I didn’t see Bella this morning and Edward didn’t either.
I didn’t see Bella this morning and neither did Edward.
1. The children shouldn’t take that medicine, and neither should she.
2. We don’t plan to attend the concert, and neither do they.
3. I don’t like tennis, and he doesn’t either.
4. She didn’t see anyone she knew, and neither did Tim.
5. The Yankees couldn’t play due to the bad weather, and neither could the Angels.
6. Mary can’t type well, and her sister can’t either.
7. I’m not interested in reading that book, and neither is she.
8. They won’t have to work on weekends, and we won’t either.
9. I can’t stand listening to that music, and she can’t either.
10. Michael doesn’t speak English, and his family doesn’t either.
11. That scientist isn’t too happy with the project, and neither are her supervisors.
12. We can’t study in the library, and they can’t either.
13. I haven’t worked there long, and neither have you.
14. You didn’t pay the rent, and she didn’t either.
15. They didn’t want anything to drink, and neither did we.
16. John shouldn’t run so fast, and neither should you.
17. The students won’t accept the dean’s decision, and the faculty won’t either.
18. Your class hasn’t begun yet, and neither has mine.
19. She couldn’t attend the lecture, and her sister couldn’t either.
20. He didn’t know the answer, and neither did I
COMMAND NEGATIVE COMMAND Pada negative command,kita hanya tinggal menambahkan ‘not to’.Mengambil contoh pada kalimat diatas,maka kalimat tersebut kalau dirubah menjadi bentuk negative command,akan menjadi seperti berikut: 1. Ben told Sarah ‘Don’t write me a letter !’ (direct) Ben told Sarah not to write him a letter (indirect) 2. Simon asked Bian ‘Don’t tell me about the truth !’ (direct) Simon asked Bian not to tell him about the truth (indirect) 3. My girlfriend told me ‘Don’t stop laughing !’ (direct) My girlfriend told me not to stop laughing (indirect)